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Katılıma Karşı Terk: On Yıllar Süresince Avrupa Birliği'nin Boyut Problematiği

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 1 - 20, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.38122/ased.779317

Öz

İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan bu yana Avrupa’nın siyasi haritası devamlı değişmektedir. Çekoslavakya ve Yugoslavya dağılırken, Almanya birleşirken, Avrupa Birliği (AB) devamlı suretle genişlemektedir. 6 üyeyle kurulan Avrupa Ekonomik Topluluğu (AET) 27 üyeli bir topluluğa evrilirken, süreç de devam etmektedir. Genişleme, kalıcı ve sürekli bir unsur olarak her daim Avrupa gündemindedir ve en çok speküle edilen politika alanlarından da biridir. Genişleme politikası, ilgili ülkelerin AB’ye tam üye olmaya hazırlanmaları ve AB’nin de buna hazırlıklı olmasıdır. Bu nedenle, AB genişleme konusunda iyi tasarlanmış bir kurumsal çerçeveye sahiptir. Öte taraftan “AB sadece genişlemektedir” demek de doğru bir önerme değildir. Birleşik Krallık’ın AB’den ayrılması son zamanların en keskin sınamalarından biri olsa da Cezayir, Grönland ve Saint Barthélémy vakaları, AB’den ve onun selefi kurumlardan çıkış konusunun tamamıyla yeni bir fenomen olmadığını göstermektedir. Bu makalenin amacı, AB bağlamındaki katılım ve çıkış olgularının kurumsal çerçevelerini ve tarihsel arka planlarını ortaya koyarak bir kıyasa imkân vermektir. Kuramsal tartışmalar, betimleyici bu çalışmanın maksadı dışındadır ve düşünceyi teşvik hedeflenmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Adam, Rudolf G. Brexit: Causes and Consequences, Cham: Springer, 2020.
  • Bjorklund, Tor. “Old and New Patterns: The “No” Majority in the 1972 and 1994 EC/EU Referandums in Norway.” Acta Sociologica 40, no 2 (1997): 143-159.
  • Börzel, A. Tanja. “The Transformative Power of Europe,” Freien Universität, Access: 01 February 2019, http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/kfgeu/kfgwp/wpseries/WorkingPaperKFG_11.pdf.
  • Brown, Megan. “Drawing Algeria into Europe: Shifting French Policy and the Treaty of Rome (1951–1964).” Modern & Contemporary France 25, no 2 (2017): 191–208.
  • Butler, Frederick William. Greece and the European Economic Community, Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School, 1978.
  • Cecchini, Paolo, Erik Jones & Jochen Lorentzen. “Europe and the Concept of Enlargement.” Survival 43, no 1 (2001): 155-166.
  • Dinan, Desmond. Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
  • Emmert, Frank and Petrovic, Siniša. “The Past, Present, and Future of EU Enlargement.” Fordham International Law Journal 37 no 5 (2014): 1349-1419.
  • European Commission. Building the Future Together. Access: 14 January 2019 http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/financial_assistance/cards/publications/brochure_en.pdf .
  • European Commission. European Neighborhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations. Access: 14 December 2019. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/about/directorate-general/index_en.htm.
  • European Commission. Trade Help Desk. Access: 21 April 2019. https://trade.ec.europa.eu/tradehelp/overseas-countries-and-territories.
  • European Council. EU Enlargement. Access: 01 December 2019. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/enlargement/.
  • European Parliament. The Enlargement of the Union. Access: 10 October 2017. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_6.5.1.html.
  • Friel, Raymond J. “Providing a Constitutional Framework For Withdrawal From The EU: Article 59 Of The Draft European Constitution.” International & Comparative Law Quarterly 53, no 2 (2004): 407-428.
  • Heidbreder, Eva G. The Impact of Expansion on European Union Institutions: The Eastern Touch on Brussels. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
  • Heinisch, Reinhard. “Austria: Confronting Controversy.” in The European Union and the Member States. Cooperation, Coordination, and Compromise, Eds. Eleanor E. Zeff and Ellen B. Pirro. 267-284. Boulder: Lynne Riemer Publisher: 2001.
  • Hillion, Christopher. “Accession and Withdrawal in the Law of the European Union” in the Oxford Handbook of European Union Law, eds. Anthony Arnull & Damian Chalmers, 126-152. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Kiss, Lilla-Nóra. “Certain Issues Of The Withdrawal Of A Member State.” A Public Law Aspect 70 no 3 (2017): 86-97.
  • Kühnhardt, Ludger. “The Fall of the Berlin Wall and European Integration,” Konrad Adenaur Stiftung, Access: 02 February 2019, http://www.kas.de/upload/Publikationen/Panorama/2009/1/kuehnhardt.pdf.
  • Lass-Lennecke, Katja and Annika Werner. “Policies, Institutions and Time: How the European Commission Managed the Temporal Challenge of Eastern Enlargement.” Journal of European Public Policy 16, no 2 (2009): 270–285. 2009
  • Martin, Sajdik and Michael Schwarzinger. European Union Enlargement: Background, Developments, Facts, New York: Routledge, 2017.
  • Perakis, Manolis. Exiting the European Union: Legal Procedure, Dimensions and Implications. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019.
  • Politico. Greenland’s Exit Warning to Britain. Access: 10 October 2019, https://www.politico.eu/article/greenland-exit-warning-to-britain-brexit-eu-referendum-europe-vote-news-denmark/.
  • Preston, Chris. The Enlargement and Integration of the European Union: Issues and Strategies. New York: Routledge, 1997.
  • Schimmelfennig, Frank. “The Double Puzzle of EU Enlargement: Liberal Norms, Rhetorical Action, and the Decision to Expand to the East”, ARENA Working Papers no. 99/15, Oslo.
  • Schimmelfennig, Frank and Ulrich Sedelmeier. “Theorizing EU Enlargement: Research Focus, Hypotheses and the State of Research.” Journal of European Public Policy 9, no 4 (2002): 500–528.
  • The Swedish Retail Institut. Swedish Alcohol Policy. Access: 24 November 2019. https://brewersofeurope.org/uploads/mycms-files/documents/archives/hui_2009_swedish_alcohol_policy_study.pdf.
  • Tiilikainen, Teija. “Finland - An EU Member with a Small State Identity.” Journal of European Integration 28 no 1 (2006): 73–87.
  • UK Government. New Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration. Access: 01 December 2019. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/new-withdrawal-agreement-and-political-declaration.
  • Viñas, Angel. “The Enlargement of the European Union: Opportunities and Concerns for Spain.” Mediterranean Politics 5, no 2 (2000): 76–92.

Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 1 - 20, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.38122/ased.779317

Öz

The European political map has been constantly changing since the World War II. The Czechoslavakia and Yugoslavia dissolved, Germany reunited and the European Union (EU) has been expanding. The original European Economic Community (EEC) has grown from 6 to 27 members and the process has been on-going. Enlargement is a permanent and continuous item on the EU agenda and by far one of the most speculated policies. Enlargement policy aims at preparing the countries concerned to become full members of the EU when they, as well as the EU, are ready. Therefore, EU has provided a well-designed institutional framework for enlargement. Nevertheless, it doesn’t necessarily mean that EU enlarges only. Even though United Kingdom's EU departure represents the sharpest challenge of recent times, the cases of Algeria, Greenland and Saint Barthélémy show that withdrawal from the EU and the institutions that preceded it, is not an absolutely new phenomenon. The objective of this article is to depict and to compare the institutional framework and the historical background of the enlargement and withdrawing facts. A discussion of theorization falls outside the scope of this illustrative paper and it is aimed to provoke thinking.

Kaynakça

  • Adam, Rudolf G. Brexit: Causes and Consequences, Cham: Springer, 2020.
  • Bjorklund, Tor. “Old and New Patterns: The “No” Majority in the 1972 and 1994 EC/EU Referandums in Norway.” Acta Sociologica 40, no 2 (1997): 143-159.
  • Börzel, A. Tanja. “The Transformative Power of Europe,” Freien Universität, Access: 01 February 2019, http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/kfgeu/kfgwp/wpseries/WorkingPaperKFG_11.pdf.
  • Brown, Megan. “Drawing Algeria into Europe: Shifting French Policy and the Treaty of Rome (1951–1964).” Modern & Contemporary France 25, no 2 (2017): 191–208.
  • Butler, Frederick William. Greece and the European Economic Community, Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School, 1978.
  • Cecchini, Paolo, Erik Jones & Jochen Lorentzen. “Europe and the Concept of Enlargement.” Survival 43, no 1 (2001): 155-166.
  • Dinan, Desmond. Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
  • Emmert, Frank and Petrovic, Siniša. “The Past, Present, and Future of EU Enlargement.” Fordham International Law Journal 37 no 5 (2014): 1349-1419.
  • European Commission. Building the Future Together. Access: 14 January 2019 http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/financial_assistance/cards/publications/brochure_en.pdf .
  • European Commission. European Neighborhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations. Access: 14 December 2019. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/about/directorate-general/index_en.htm.
  • European Commission. Trade Help Desk. Access: 21 April 2019. https://trade.ec.europa.eu/tradehelp/overseas-countries-and-territories.
  • European Council. EU Enlargement. Access: 01 December 2019. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/enlargement/.
  • European Parliament. The Enlargement of the Union. Access: 10 October 2017. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_6.5.1.html.
  • Friel, Raymond J. “Providing a Constitutional Framework For Withdrawal From The EU: Article 59 Of The Draft European Constitution.” International & Comparative Law Quarterly 53, no 2 (2004): 407-428.
  • Heidbreder, Eva G. The Impact of Expansion on European Union Institutions: The Eastern Touch on Brussels. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
  • Heinisch, Reinhard. “Austria: Confronting Controversy.” in The European Union and the Member States. Cooperation, Coordination, and Compromise, Eds. Eleanor E. Zeff and Ellen B. Pirro. 267-284. Boulder: Lynne Riemer Publisher: 2001.
  • Hillion, Christopher. “Accession and Withdrawal in the Law of the European Union” in the Oxford Handbook of European Union Law, eds. Anthony Arnull & Damian Chalmers, 126-152. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Kiss, Lilla-Nóra. “Certain Issues Of The Withdrawal Of A Member State.” A Public Law Aspect 70 no 3 (2017): 86-97.
  • Kühnhardt, Ludger. “The Fall of the Berlin Wall and European Integration,” Konrad Adenaur Stiftung, Access: 02 February 2019, http://www.kas.de/upload/Publikationen/Panorama/2009/1/kuehnhardt.pdf.
  • Lass-Lennecke, Katja and Annika Werner. “Policies, Institutions and Time: How the European Commission Managed the Temporal Challenge of Eastern Enlargement.” Journal of European Public Policy 16, no 2 (2009): 270–285. 2009
  • Martin, Sajdik and Michael Schwarzinger. European Union Enlargement: Background, Developments, Facts, New York: Routledge, 2017.
  • Perakis, Manolis. Exiting the European Union: Legal Procedure, Dimensions and Implications. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019.
  • Politico. Greenland’s Exit Warning to Britain. Access: 10 October 2019, https://www.politico.eu/article/greenland-exit-warning-to-britain-brexit-eu-referendum-europe-vote-news-denmark/.
  • Preston, Chris. The Enlargement and Integration of the European Union: Issues and Strategies. New York: Routledge, 1997.
  • Schimmelfennig, Frank. “The Double Puzzle of EU Enlargement: Liberal Norms, Rhetorical Action, and the Decision to Expand to the East”, ARENA Working Papers no. 99/15, Oslo.
  • Schimmelfennig, Frank and Ulrich Sedelmeier. “Theorizing EU Enlargement: Research Focus, Hypotheses and the State of Research.” Journal of European Public Policy 9, no 4 (2002): 500–528.
  • The Swedish Retail Institut. Swedish Alcohol Policy. Access: 24 November 2019. https://brewersofeurope.org/uploads/mycms-files/documents/archives/hui_2009_swedish_alcohol_policy_study.pdf.
  • Tiilikainen, Teija. “Finland - An EU Member with a Small State Identity.” Journal of European Integration 28 no 1 (2006): 73–87.
  • UK Government. New Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration. Access: 01 December 2019. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/new-withdrawal-agreement-and-political-declaration.
  • Viñas, Angel. “The Enlargement of the European Union: Opportunities and Concerns for Spain.” Mediterranean Politics 5, no 2 (2000): 76–92.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Mehmet Bahadır İLERİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2220-5966
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ased779317, journal = {Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2619-9211}, address = {asedaksaray@gmail.com}, publisher = {Aksaray Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {1 - 20}, doi = {10.38122/ased.779317}, title = {Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades}, key = {cite}, author = {İleri, Mehmet Bahadır} }
APA İleri, M. B. (2021). Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades . Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 5 (1) , 1-20 . DOI: 10.38122/ased.779317
MLA İleri, M. B. "Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades" . Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (2021 ): 1-20 <http://aseddergi.aksaray.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/63266/779317>
Chicago İleri, M. B. "Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades". Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (2021 ): 1-20
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades AU - Mehmet Bahadır İleri Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.38122/ased.779317 DO - 10.38122/ased.779317 T2 - Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 20 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2619-9211 M3 - doi: 10.38122/ased.779317 UR - https://doi.org/10.38122/ased.779317 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades %A Mehmet Bahadır İleri %T Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades %D 2021 %J Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi %P -2619-9211 %V 5 %N 1 %R doi: 10.38122/ased.779317 %U 10.38122/ased.779317
ISNAD İleri, Mehmet Bahadır . "Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades". Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 / 1 (Haziran 2021): 1-20 . https://doi.org/10.38122/ased.779317
AMA İleri M. B. Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades. ASED. 2021; 5(1): 1-20.
Vancouver İleri M. B. Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades. Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2021; 5(1): 1-20.
IEEE M. B. İleri , "Accession versus Exit: European Union’s Size Issue Throughout The Decades", Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, c. 5, sayı. 1, ss. 1-20, Haz. 2021, doi:10.38122/ased.779317